Refractive errors characteristic of the patients at the Children’s Ophthalmology Outpatient Department of Kauno klinikos Hospital (Lithuanian University of Health Sciences) from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012

Rasa Čiumbaraitė, Rasa Liutkevičienė

Abstract


Background. The purpose of our study was to assess the distribution and patterns of refractive errors in children for the proper planning of paediatric eye care at the centre.
Material and methods. The study was conducted in the hospital of the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences in Kaunas, from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012. During this period, a total of 11,406 children, aged 0–18  years, were evaluated at the  outpatient department of paediatric ophthalmology, Kauno klinikos, the  Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. All the children underwent a complete ophthalmic examination with cycloplegic refraction.
Results. Myopia increased from 1.5% (95% CI:1.2, 1.8) in the age group of 0–1 to 44.7% (95% CI:43.46, 45.94) in the age group of 14–18 (p < 0.001). Myopia was associated with older age, female gender (20.3%; 95% CI:19.3, 21.3; p < 0.001). Hypermetropia decreased from 84.6% (95% CI:83.7, 85.5) in the cohort of 0–1 to 11.4% (95% CI: 10.61, 12.19) in the 14–18 age group (p < 0.001). Hypermetropia was associated with younger age, male gender (43.4%; 95% CI:42.16, 44.64; p < 0.001), preterm birth (56.1%; 95% CI:54.86, 57.34; 43.4%; p < 0.001), low birth weight (61.8%; 95% CI:60.59, 63.01; p < 0.001), and birth by Caesarean section (57.1%; 95% CI: 55.87; 58.33) (p < 0.001).
The prevalence of astigmatism was 25.5% (95% CI: 24.41; 26.59) (p < 0.001). Astigmatism was associated with female gender (20.1%; 95%. CI: 19.1; 21.1) and too big pregnancy weight (22.1%.; 95%. CI: 21.06; 23.14) (p < 0.001).
Conclusions. Of the 14–18 age group, 44.7% of the patients were myopic. Of the 0–1 age group, 84.6% were hypermetropic. Astigmatism was detected in about 25.5% of children. The prevalence of refractive errors was associated with age, gender, gestation age, gestation weight, and parental refractive error.

Keywords


myopia; hypermetropia; astigmatism

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.6001/actamedica.v24i2.3488

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