An impact of mutation on MMP-2, -3 and -9 activity regulation and influence on age-related macular degeneration development: literature review

Rasa Liutkeviciene, Giedre Sinkunaite-Marsalkiene, Virginija Asmoniene, Dalia Zaliuniene


Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) belong to a family of proteolytic zinc-containing enzymes. Mechanism of MMPs is precisely regulated under normal physiological conditions, but when dysregulated it becomes a cause of many diseases such as arthritis, nephritis, cancer, encephalomyelitis, chronic ulcers, fibrosis, myocardial infarction, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), etc. MMPs are capable of degrading most of the components of the extracellular matrix, which may play an important role in the extracellular matrix remodeling during angiogenesis – the main pathological process associated with agerelated macular degeneration development. Activated endothelial cells release matrix metalloproteinases which degrading the basilar membrane allow capillaries to grow beneath the retina and between retinal layers. Such capillaries often bleed, more liquids are filtered through the walls, and fibrous tissue grows within. Furthermore, retina swelling and impaired vision occur.
The article discusses about an impact of mutation on MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-9 activity regulation and influence on AMD development.


age-related macular degeneration; MMP-2; MMP-3; MMP-9 genes; matrix metalloproteinases; polymorphism; pa­thogenesis

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ISSN 1392-0146 (Print)
ISSN 2029-0578 (Online)