The Idea of Mass Culture in the Technologized Context of Lifelong Learning from the Philosophical Perspective of Ortega y Gasset

  • Ilona Valantinaitė
  • Živilė Sederevičiūtė-Pačiauskienė
  • Vaida Asakavičiūtė
  • Vida Navickienė
Keywords: Ortega y Gasset, mass culture, technologization, lifelong learning, student’s attitude


The article discusses consequences of increasing accessibility of education employing virtual learning environments. The main focus is laid on two consequences, i.e. on flourishing of mass-man and elimination of individual attitude. Seeking to ensure accessibility of education to everybody, equal conditions are introduced: technologization of the learning process through virtual learning environments leads to assurance of the level of convenient use, which diverts the attention from the essence, i.e. from the creation of elite culture in personality education. According to Ortega y Gasset, mass culture, information for the masses and environment overwhelm consciousness of an individual, who has lost his/her individuality, and irreversibly take an individual away from his/her interest in the meaning of existence. The article focuses on the technologization of lifelong learning development, its progressive and destructive aspects. Technologization seems to be an integral component of the system of education in the 21st century. It also facilitates teaching/learning, makes it more attractive, accessible, convenient, individualised and efficient, although its efficiency and effectiveness are still questioned (Price, Kirkwood 2014; Englund, Olofsson, Price 2017). What factors encourage development and technologization of lifelong learning? What advantages and disadvantages of using virtual learning environments are distinguished by students and what does this presuppose? Does not this lead to flourishing of mass culture and mass-man education?
Reflections on Culture