Phenological growth stages of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.): codification and description according to the BBCH scale

  • Sergey Mishchenko
  • Jurij Mokher
  • Iryna Laiko
  • Natalija Burbulis
  • Hanna Kyrychenko
  • Svetlana Dudukova
Keywords: BBCH-scale, Cannabis sativa L., dioecious hemp, monoecious hemp, phenological growth stages


The current paper discusses the characteristics of principal growth stages of hemp (Canabis sativa), provides a  brief description of these stages and of the coding system according to the BBCH scale. The growing season of hemp is divided into nine principal growth stages: germination and sprouting (0), leaf development (1), formation of lateral shoots (2), stem elongation (3), inflorescence emergence (5), flowering (6), development of fruit (7), ripening of fruit (8) and senescence (9). The principal growth stages are subdivided into secondary stages based on their main distinctive features. The classification system of hemp growth stages presented in the paper is designed for hemp growers and researchers, including plant breeders, physiologists, entomologists and other agricultural producers. Using the  uniform coding system of the  phenological stages of hemp is a valuable tool to ensure a more efficient planning and implementation of crop and soil management practices and techniques.