The effect of bioproducts on organically grown winter wheat
Keywords: wheat, bioproducts, organic farming, fungi, yield
AbstractThe study was aimed to examine the effect of the bioproducts Biokal 01 and Fitokondi on the germination of organically grown winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar ‘Širvinta 1’ seed and its contamination with microscopic fungi as well as the impact on the occurrence of foliar diseases, plant biometric indicators and grain quality. Laboratory analyses showed that the tested bioproducts did not exert any significant effect on seed vigour and germination. Fitokondi gave the highest efficacy against pathogens of seeds, its biological efficacy against Fusarium and Alternaria spp. fungi was 50.0% and against Penicillium spp. it was 20.0%. Biokal 01 statistically significantly reduced only grain contamination with Mucor spp. and Aspergillus spp. The bioproducts significantly decreased the incidence of crown rot diseases in the coleoptiles of wheat seedlings and roots. In the field conditions, the bioproducts did not have any significant effect on the incidence of Septoria leaf blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) J. Schröt. anamorph Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm.) Quaedvlieg & Crous) and tan spot (Helminthosporium tritici-repentis Died.). A significant increase in plant height and ear length, grain number per ear and 1000 grain weight was recorded. Grain yield increased by 0.66–0.79 t ha–1 or 18.64–22.32%, as well as protein, wet gluten and dry gluten content in response to both bioproducts.