Management of the elements of technology for growing of sunflower in the Right-Bank Steppe of Ukraine
Keywords: sunflower, hybrids, sowing time, plant standing density, soil nutrient regime, water regime of soil, yield
AbstractThe article presents the results of scientific research on the management of technology elements and the influence of factors on the productivity of sunflower in the Right-Bank Steppe of Ukraine. The studies were conducted in the fields of the Institute of Agriculture of the Steppe NAAS, which is located in the black earth zone of the Right-Bank Steppe of Ukraine. The level of sunflower productivity is determined by the conditions of water and nutrient conditions of soil. Water regime is formed by the weather conditions, the amount of soil moisture reserves, the amount and intensity of rainfall during the year, incl. during the growing season. The moisture reserves available to plants in the meter layer of soil before sowing, in the flowering phase and before harvesting were different during the years of research, varied in terms of sowing and depended on the density of standing plants. Of particular importance for sunflower plants is the content of available moisture in the 0–100 сm layer of soil after the formation of baskets. During this period, sunflower intensively consumes available moisture from deeper layers of soil. The amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium varied significantly over the years and under the influence of different fertilizer backgrounds. Application of nitrogen fertilizers in combination with phosphorus and potassium, N40P40K40 + PP and N40P40K40, improves soil nutrition and creates more favourable conditions for growing and developing sunflower plants and maintaining soil fertility. Under these conditions, the LG 55.82 hybrid with a plant density of 60 housand/ha formed the highest yield for the first sowing period – 3.85 t/ha. Considering the economic indicators, it is efficient to grow LG 54.85 and LG 55.82 hybrids for the first sowing period. Forward and LG 56.32 sunflower hybrids provide the highest economic performance for the third sowing period. Among the hybrids, it is most economically apropriate to grow LG 55.82 when sowing at soil temperature of 5–6°C and plant density of 60 thousand/ha. The net profit in this variant was 22043 UAH/ha, and the level of profitability was 224.1%. The energy efficiency ratio was the highest in the first sowing period of the LG 55.82 hybrid – 4.44.