Apple cultivars in Lithuania in 1820–1914

  • Rimvydas Laužikas
Keywords: orchards, historical apple cultivars, J. Strumiłło, A. Hrebnicki, W. Montwiłł


The oldest mentioned gardens in Lithuania are from the Middle Ages. However, the oldest lists of fruit tree cultivars were compiled only in the 19th century. The article presents systematised information on apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars recommended for cultivation and cultivated in Lithuania from 1820 to 1914. A total of 22 written sources in Polish, Russian and Lithuanian from the period that mention specific apple cultivars were analysed. A list of 165 old apple cultivars was compiled during the study. The apple cultivars mentioned in historical sources have been identified as contemporary apple cultivars or those described in other historical pomology sources. The original names of the old apple cultivars recorded in written sources are also provided. The compiled list of apple cultivars reveals characteristics of the development of apple orchards in the cultural context of this period.