Sol–gel synthesis of calcium phosphate-based coatings – A review
Keywords: calcium phosphates, calcium hydroxyapatite, bioglasses, composites, coatings, sol–gel processing
AbstractCalcium phosphate (CP)-based biomaterials, especially nanostructured ones, show a high biocompatibility and increased biological properties. The coatings composed of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite have been extensively used to improve integration of metallic implants in the host bone. However, these coatings exhibited several drawbacks that limited their successful application. It was concluded in numerous articles that the sol–gel derived coatings can undergo cracking and delamination and are scarcely uniform. In this review article the recent advances on the sol–gel synthesis of different phosphate coatings and thin films are summarized. The attention is paid to coatings and thin films of calcium hydroxyapatite (CHAp), other phosphates, bioglasses and different composite materials. The state of the art, limitations, potentialities, open challenges, and the future scenarios for the application of CP bioceramics are highlighted in this study.